The first Japanese monoplane fighter with a fully enclosed cockpit and fully retractable landing gear to enter squadron service was the Mitsubishi A6M2, known popularly as the Zero-Sen. The A6M1 prototype was flown first on 1 April 1939, and the '12-Shi fighter project', as it had been known, was adopted officially by the Imperial Japanese Navy on 31 July 1940, under the designation A6M2 Type 0 Carrier Fighter Model 11.

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